of the Tugluq dynasty (14-15th centuries). While some Tugluq monuments are
well known, there is yet no thorough survey of the architectural remains of
this important dynasty.
The Tuglug ruler Firoz Shah, who ruled Delhi and the surrounding region from 1351-88, was concerned about invasion by the Mongols and others. Consequently, he built Hisar-I Firuza as a defensive garrison to Delhi's northwest, but he also raised other structures elsewhere, many of which still survive. As the well- know art historian Catherine Asher notes, the palaces of Firoz Shah are especially important, for they are the best surviving examples of domestic architecture of the pre-Mughal period. An interest in the past by Firoz Shah is also demonstrated by these remains. By reusing portions of ancient pillars in the creation of standards (as seen at Hisar and Firuzabad), Firoz Shah seems to link his rule to India's past and thus attempts to establish his legitimacy. Future consideration of Tugluq monuments will undoubtedly lead to a fuller understanding of such efforts and other developments in this early period.
Further consideration of lesser known monuments is especially pressing as these regions are undergoing extensive development that may not permit the continued existence of all monuments. As the region is now primarily identified as part of the modern Indian nation with little recognition of its Islamic past, such further consideration of its surviving monuments will allow reflection on