merchants, are particularly important structures surviving in this region. While the Islamic monuments of northern India have received much previous attention, those located in the Haryana-Punjab region are more neglected despite the fact that some of the surviving monuments were built by Mughal rulers, the dynasty best known for the creation of the Taj Mahal. The mosque at Panipat, built by Babur, the founder of Mughal dysnasty (c. 1526), or the caravanserai at Nur Mahal, built by Nur Jahan, wife of emperor Jahangir (c. 1620), are but two important surviving structures in the region that is now contained in the modern Indian states of Haryana and Punjab. Moreover, while some are typical of Islamicate monuments found elsewhere in the subcontinent (tombs, mosques, etc), others, such as stepped-wells, demostrate the shared nature of this particular built environment.

The period of Mughal reign, established in the early sixteenth century by Babur, may be the best known Islamic dynasty to rule India, but it was hardly the first. There were important developments in the centuries immediately preceding the establishment of Mughal rule in South Asia that enabled later consolidation by the Mughals; there were also other Islamic dynasties independently ruling parts of South Asia not controlled by the Mughals. Without a better understanding of these various activities the true significance of Islamic traditions in the subcontinent remains obscure. This is particularly true for the